A Brief History of laptops

The idea laptop was already in the late 1960 Dynabook, but this Tablet PC for mainly children.

There was no real commercial incentive to develop a truly portable computer, (and thought to be practical in all cases), so it was not until much later, new developments in transistors and processors, that the laptop They considered as something more than just a child's game.

it was the early '80s, the first truly portable computer was developed, the Osborne 1 was not analyzed, (I had plugged in), but at least the data and the computer can be shipped.

a few years later, in 1982, Compaq computers were released.

is widely accepted that Compaq was not much better than the Osborn 1, but because of the new popular MS-DOS operating system (used during most of IBM computers), it turned out, was an immediate success .

last year Epson announced the first truly portable computer battery nickel. Epson was more like an advanced calculator only 80 characters will be displayed at a time.

also introduced the Compass 1101 will be credited, around the same time giving us the now known design of the laptop computer screen folded shut over the keyboard.

In 1984, Gavilan SC and Sharp PC-500 entered

into the market, the Gavilan was the first that the concept of the laptop (and basic pointing device).

1984 also saw the arrival of the Kyocera Kyotronic 85, it was small and offered a variety of applications such as a word processor, a spreadsheet or a modem, and it's very popular indeed.

By the end of the 1980s, many laptop manufacturers have developed fairly similar machines. Everything that from the size of an A4 page is an A3. Most of the NEC Ultralite, the Cambridge Z88 and the IBM PC Convertible. The Compaq LTE introduced a portable hard drive (up to the date of the operating system stored in ROM and floppy disks were used).

set out in the early 1990s, the look and feel of the Apple laptop was by computers (built-in trackball, keyboard and palm rest). Not to be outdone the IBM Thinkpad 700C introduced the TrackPoint one year later.

Since the mid-90's only improved technology for portable computers. Longer battery life and a huge hard drives, now that the laptop a serious challenger to the table.

For more information on laptops and notebooks [http://www.myoddpc.com/other/hardware/laptop.php]

Source by Simon Goodman

History of the camera

Early cameras were the 16th and 17th century, the ability to project images on paper or glass but the study of recording, processing and printing the images took many more years. Until the 17th century, scientists thought that light consisted essentially of & # 39; White & # 39; to be detected by the human eye. famous physicist Isaac Newton conducted the research discovered that the light is actually a spectrum of colors. While great contribution to the study of optics (that is the core of camera advances) the discovery, Newton did not actually anything to do with camera development per se.

The early camera that was the first time the phenomenon has become a little more like a hidden camera and can be traced back to 1558. It was called the Camera Obscura. The Camera Obscura was seen as a drawing tool for a clearer and realistic portrayal of objects. This was the beginning of the 19th century to the present invention named the Camera Lucida led by Cambridge scientist William Hyde Wollaston, that it was an optical device that can help the artist to see a distant scene or person or object on the surface of a paper that he had been using to call. In other words, you get to see the artist superimposed image of a subject on paper and this image could be effectively used in an attempt to draw, trace or paint it. All of the pictures in the Camera Lucida Camera Obscura and was granted a temporary, which can not be permanently attached to the paper for later use.

However, the study is still in the 1800 & # 39; and how to actually capture the image onto material. It was during this time, around 1822 that French researcher Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, created the first photograph using paper that is coated with a material. The picture does not stay permanently on the paper and would disappear after a short period of time. Even so, despite the short-lived nature of the picture, the concept of photography was born in this experiment and paved the way for the further study and development in this area.

shooting to keep them longer and permanently became the next big quest for researchers. Another Frenchman Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre partnered Nicéphore Niépce in 1829 to develop the unit's process of creating permanent photographs. Joseph Niépce died in 1833 but Daguerre continued the work and succeeded in 1837 after many years of experimentation. The process of capturing photographs, which does not disappear, introduced by Daguerre came to be known as the & # 39; Daguerreotype & # 39;.

The word & # 39; photography & # 39; Sir John FW Herschel scientist coined in 1839, and he actually comes from two Greek words & # 39; Photos & # 39; which means light and & # 39; graphein & # 39; ie tie.

a little bit more advanced version of the daguerreotype called calotype process, which can be more than one copy of the negative and positive method became available very soon after. In fact, during the 1840s it & # 39; and that the use of photographs advertisements first started and cameras made their mark on the power of visual communication. It was not much later, in the 1850 & # 39; and that photographers first started experimenting with underwater photography sea.

Until 1850, the process of shooting was cumbersome requiring up to half an hour illumination. The discovery in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer was a blessing since the new method is called Collodion process called only 2-3 seconds to light exposure to capture the image.

Before 1871 photographers went through a development process, which was to coat the plates wet chemical each time, and process the image immediately. The invention of the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process by Richard Leach Maddox, negatives can not be developed immediately. This is an important finding because until then the captured image had to be processed immediately.

Kodak created in 1888, George Eastman was a pioneer of sorts today's cameras and photography to the masses. George Eastman and the scientists who worked with Kodak developed the photographic film in 1889 and made it available in rolls for mass use by consumers. An important milestone in the development of entertainment and communication history was transparent roll film of Eastman. This development led to another key invention – the motion picture camera by Thomas Edison & # 39; s in 1891.

-> Modern Times

During the 20th century, the pace of technological development in cameras and photography continued at an accelerated pace, like many other key technology developments. While several key inventions like car, telephone and the gramophone record happened in the later half of the 19th century, this is the last 100 years that saw many areas of major development work in communications technology and other areas – television, airplanes PCs, digital technology, digital cameras, cell phones, fax machines and the Internet, to name just a few.

In the case of the camera, the developments simplified the whole process of photography, accessible in one place and at affordable prices and the camera industry of our time residents has a mass phenomenon. The first mass use camera became available at the turn of the 20th century and can be traced back to the year 1900. Hundreds of camera models available today in both amateur and professional, and the camera is an important part of every family & # 39; s repertoire should gadgets.

-> 20th century chronology of the history of the camera:

1913: 35 mm still camera captured

1927: A light bulb in the General Electric Co. (The concept of camera flash It existed long before, but based on the use of flash powder invented by German researchers)

1935- 1941: Kodak starts marketing Kodachrome film and then start Kodacolor negative film. Canon released the Hansa Canon in 1936, the first 35mm camera shutter.

1948: The concept of the Polaroid camera on the market. American scientist Edwin Land developed the process for instant photos. Later Polaroid Corporation developed the & # 39; instant color & # 39; Around 1963 film

1957: Jacques Yves Cousteau French invented the first waterproof 35mm underwater photography named the Calypso Phot. Developed by the actual camera Belgian airplane technical designer Jean de Wouters based on the blueprint and suggestions given to him Cousteau.

1972: The electronic camera that does not require film was created and patented by Texas Instruments. However, this is not the same as a digital camera, you do not need digital film cameras as well. The launch of the digital camera is still many years away.

1975: Kodak & # 39; s digital imaging experiments started around the mid-seventies, but it's another 20 years before a digital camera launched in the domestic consumer market.

1978 – 1980: Asian players like Konica and Sony begin to make a mark. A & # 39; point and shoot & # 39; Launched by Konica auto focus camera while Sony starts talking about the camcorder and demonstrates a prototype.

1981: Sony introduces a commercially available electronic camera. Similar to the 1972 invention of Texas Instruments, Sony electronic camera came with a mini disc on which images captured and stored. The recorded images could be later printed or viewed on a monitor with a reader device.

1985: Digital processing technology makes entry. Pixar introduced by the digital imaging and processing.

1986: The camera industry is more consumer focused and taps the fun and travel connotations behind camera use, the launch of the concept of disposable, single-use cameras. Fuji approve of this idea.

Also in 1986 – 1987, Kodak started tremendous strides in digital development. Digital tools of the photographic image is divided into small units of dots or squares known as pixels. Pixels are programmable units of an image that can be processed by a computer. All shots million pixels. The use of pixels in digital technology allows you to store a large amount of pixels delivers high-resolution print quality.

1990: Kodak Photo CD market & # 39; s. It is a system to store your photos on CD and then viewing them on your computer. With this development the user-friendly approach of the camera industry began to concrete form.

1991: Kodak digital camera market in a targeted professionals and journalists. Kodak credited with the invention of a pixel based camera technology known as digital cameras. Digital cameras do not use film similar legal predecessor electronic cameras but the storage method is entirely different and the final photograph is much higher resolution. The digital images are recorded and stored in digital form. This digital data can be transferred to a computer and print-ready. Kodak and Canon are well known digital camera manufacturers and there are also several other key brands as well.

1994: Apple Quick Take camera, digital camera launched for home use. This is followed by the launch of a clutch home use digital cameras, Casio, Kodak and others in quick succession during 1995 – & # 39; 96.

-> The digital era:

The development of digital camera technology is considered to be related to the development and video technology. The principles of transmission and recording of audio-visual images using digital electrical impulses finds the camera as well.


to 1990 & # 39; and a closed technology developments continue, the focus is now shifting to the field of digital imaging, which is where the future. Use-friendly features like software that can download digital images directly from the camera to store and share home computers on the Internet the new norm in the market.

The camera, the computer, the software industry and the worldwide web today irrevocably together to empower users to experience the benefits of using the camera to its full potential. The innovation that sparked many an invention in the camera industry found its way in the digital world as well and continued to a variety of digital camera manufacturers. the Kodak and Microsoft partnership ensured in 2001 that digital camera manufacturers could use the power of Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) standard Windows. The digital photo experience is a key visual driver in the Internet age. Many Kodak EasyShare digital camera models are compatible with Windows XP capabilities. The Kodak EasyShare software enables users to your digital camera pictures directly from the camera to the computer, and then print the pictures or even email them.

Manufacturers of related industry like the printing industry have adapted their products to sync with the images created by digital cameras. Mobile phone manufacturers connected to the digital camera manufacturers to new age camera phones in recent years. These camera phone pictures and share images on the cell phone.

Among the 21st century digital developments in the advanced product line of digital cameras manufacturers and these are sure to occupy an important place in the history of the next camera development. For example, the Kodak Professional DCS Pro SLR / c is a high-end digital camera and a Kodak DCS Pro SLR website draws the most representative models of rich digital cameras on the market. It has an image sensor that can handle 13.89 million pixels and this makes it the highest resolution digital camera available. High resolution determines the sharpness or detail photos. This is just a glimpse of the capabilities that digital technology places the user & # 39; s hands. Digital camera sales figures show that in 2003, the two key players Kodak and Canon recorded impressive growth.

-> What the future holds for camera users?

digital cameras provided by the service can be pretty amazing for the average user, and very exciting for most pros. Four key ongoing camera developments that are likely to further improve the process of photography:

1. High resolution, even the simplest, low cost camera models

2. In addition to use in any type of lighting

3. Compatibility with a whole range of software, hardware and image types

4. Rich colors and tone

While the higher-end digital evolution continues, the prices of simple camera crashed to the extent that even kids and teens proud owners of simple cameras. The camera and photography interest starts young and this creates a truly large audience base for the camera.

Throughout history, it is clear that the ambition of researchers and developers has been to the camera in a wide range of society. Without camera technology and photography, the other key developments of cinema and TV would have to be postponed, and what a boring place the world would not have TV and movies !!

Source by Christopher Haslego

My Canon digital camera says "Memory Card Error" – Help!

Many people are asking about the camera's memory card displays them in an error message. If this kind of problem, do not worry, because this problem is often asked among photographers. Do not forget that if this thing happens, just do not format the card, and it should not take more pictures. You should be aware that the photos still intact on the memory card, it takes multiple images to rename the old ones.

So what do you do if you really need that picture off although the card is corrupt? Here are some things to solve this problem:

First of all, check the camera manufacturer's website and check out the latest SDHC cards will not work with the older camera. It is therefore probably need to change the memory card standard SD card only (usually those 2GB or less).

Second, you can format the card to correct problems with the camera, but please remember to format the card in the camera can also delete all the photos on the card.

Third, make sure you do not accidentally insert the small side slider locking the SD card in the "closed" position down. You need to slide up toward the direction of the connectors correct "tripped" position.

There are many other troubleshooting items to check the problem of "memory card locked" or "media failure". The important thing to remember is not the format, if you need the pictures and you will get a message that says "no image" or "no data" if the Canon properly formatted.

Source by Erwin Rooshartono

Itching Parasites drive you crazy

Rare skin parasites, which thousands of relentless itchy skin, suffered from people around the world are becoming more common. The itching is so intense and relentless that the only relief is to be near scalding baths several times a day to keep the vermin at bay.

How itchy skin parasites contracted? One lady contracted them a bird nest she knocked on the window. Another lady contracted them while they rented furniture transportation furniture with her husband. A person contracted by dust during cutting down a dead tree. Another woman took out a nest of mice in a comforting stored in the garage, and contracted with them. Exchange clothes was a bridesmaid in the wedding Another downfall of another woman. One woman even says he contracted a fellow sitting opposite him in a work meeting. He claims to have seen drops coming out of his mouth as he spoke. My own personal hell began when there was a dust storm descends on me as I pulled a strangulating vine on a tree in my garden.

onset of symptoms usually begins about 24-36 hours after exposure. The initial symptoms of itching, skin leaders of the individual to a hot bath to relieve the symptoms. Unfortunately, within a few hours of intense itching returned. Anti-itch creams only a few hours respite.

Generally, very little could be seen with the naked eye, except perhaps a few noticed their skin glistening in the sunlight. Within a few days, the symptoms are more severe, itching develops a spicy sensation that feels like it's from the skin such as rashes and lesions developing everywhere.

The family doctor usually requires Elimite, Diprolene, Quell, cortisone, sulfa drugs and antibiotics … the rash. There is an immediate relief for up to four days, and itchy skin symptoms returned in full force. It's almost as if the parasites adapt and become immune to the barrage of treatments.

Then the family doctor refers the individual to a dermatologist or a specialist. A dermatologist or a specialist is often at a loss to explain the physical condition. Because I can not diagnose anything, it often suggests the problem is caused by stress or because of changes that scratched with a fingernail.

After referring to, subtract a plug samples of blood and tissue. The disease ultimately believes that the results of the investigation to identify the offending organism and start waiting for the results of the tests, so the appropriate treatment can be given.

However, the blood test comes back basically normal, except for a slight increase in the CBC which may indicate a mild infection – nothing to worry about. And the results of the biopsy also negative. The individual begins to think that he / she is living in a bad dream.

Unknowingly while all this is happening, the suffering environment – this is the entire home, including all furniture, bedding, clothing … infected. Some sufferers are beginning to see black spots or gritty material in their bedding or noticed some injuries and cotton fibers emerging as a material of the skin.

The desperation and panic leads to all kinds of foreign worms, herbs, chelation therapy, removal of amalgam or iron filings for their teeth to remove the mercury, drugs in Mexico, faith healing, rifing … mostly to no avail.

The offending parasites usually one or more different skin parasites

1. Collembola (spring tails)

2. Strongyloides stercoralis

3. Morgellons

Unfortunately, the fact that almost all physicians inexperienced in the treatment of these two agents, and there are no diagnostic tests available. And ironically, one that can be identified (Strongyloides) requiring a wormer which again is rare nematode management of inexperienced doctors.

How are typically contracted the skin of



bed bugs.

contaminated clothing, furniture, jewelry …

The Strongloides life cycle where they exist internally and partly takes them out of their life cycle in human skin, which can contaminate others. So despite the fact that initially range from mites and bed bugs, they can range from simple warm skin contact with contaminated clothing or furniture.

no sexual contact in case of need for a gearbox – a simple skin contact is all that is required.

long-term exposure can lead to complications memory loss, joint pain, brain fog, fibromyalgia, ADHD, bipolar disorder … However, it is unknown whether these complications or because only parasites on the skin because accompanying Lyme disease and protozoal infections that often accompany the skin parasites.

If the skin is infected with parasites lot of hard work is needed to make life return.

first Disinfection in all environments, bed linen, clothes, jewelry, cars, workstations …

2. The Epson salts bath protocols, and then wipe the tea tree oil body lotion and using 999 (available in Chinese shops).

3. The parasite / Lyme diet that is high in protein and most popular zero carbohydrates, such as fruits, wheat … Skin parasites eating habits. There are certain foods that are enjoyed and pay the feed milling and itching and there are food, starve them. It required three years to discover and perfect your diet. Fortunately, it has been reported that all known types of skin parasites. This is also a special diet that allows you to the next point to create the magic.

4. By using Orap or successful eradication of a number of other prescription drugs a lot of worms.

Yes, life can return to normal from these parasites itchy skin, and you wake up this bad dream, and there was an e-book soothing all directions in the Itch and diet control.

Source by Richard Kuhns

Secret World Of Spy Tracking inkjet!

The idea that the printer ink cartridges can monitor all printing activity may be a conspiracy theory too far. But in fact, while inkjet cartridges are not the assets of the secret government agents, the reality is that the standard inkjet printers have a hidden spy left a trail back to the base.

This is a well-guarded secret that only came to light relatively recently. More than twenty years ago, it was set up secret technology to try to prevent the false printing paper money, certificates and sensitive documents. As a result, it became perfectly possible that the initiator is a fake produced high quality, state of the art printing machines that can be traced back to the printed false documents.

All that is known in the detection method is that it is based on a microscopic dot pattern encryption. Even now, the information is classified. However, it is still possible to discover if the printer still has the means to secretly encoded text pages printed on the sheet carefully examining a strong, bright light. A very thorough analysis should begin to reveal a barely visible pattern of yellow dots covering the entire surface of the page.

The microscopic yellow dots are encoded with the date and time that will allow the government or other official security agencies to track back to find the printer that initially the page. Although the continued confidentiality is always maintained, some reports may not come to light surrounding the "yellow dot code" in the periods 2004 and 2008

almost certainly the main objective has been to only the ability during that career is serious, large-scale counterfeiting operations on a limited number of advanced technology available printers. However, there were massive price cuts, color laser printers in the mass market. It probably could not have foreseen that, regardless of size or price, many small and home-based businesses as well as corporate and business printer will contain a tracking technology. Research conducted previously found that the most popular brand in the home user market for color laser printers have been discovered containing a yellow dot encryption technology.

Unfortunately, nothing prevents any single page printed carrying the "code yellow dot 'laser printer to print can be traced back to the original source. However, significant advances in monitoring technology developed in recent years. The upside is that it is almost certain that the new generation of highly sophisticated and impossible-to-detect encrypted tracking sensors have replaced the original yellow dots.

Therefore, it is unlikely – although not impossible – that would be any modern business or home office now have a working ink printer that includes the original yellow dot tracking technology.

Source by Kelvin Graham